Palms for Autumn Planting, Part IV

The survey of palm species available at Richard Lyons’ Nursery in 3-gal. containers continues this week:

Sabal mauritiiformis is probably the fastest-growing of the 20 or so species of Sabal. Native from northern South America to southern Mexico, this palm produces fairly large, deeply-split circular leaves — reminiscent of those of Licuala — even before the trunk develops. And the undersides of the leaves are mildly silvery. Eventually this palm will reach 30-60 ft. tall, with a trunk about a foot in diameter.

Satakentia liukiuensis is a palm endemic to the rainy southern Ryukyu Islands of Japan. A self-cleaning species, it possesses a beautiful maroon-brown crownshaft. It has a slow to moderate growth rate, maturing to about 30 ft. in our region, and is amenable to both limestone and sandy soils. S. liukiuensis holds up well to tropical storm conditions and can tolerate at least light frost. To see a nice stand of this striking palm, drive by the Lennar Foundation Medical Center on the eastern border of the University of Miami.

Serenoa repens is the Saw Palmetto, whose seeds are the source of an extract recommended in alternative medicine circles as beneficial to prostate health. A Florida native, it is a small, slow-growing species whose mildly fragrant flowers are a rarity in the palm world. Stems of this clustering species commonly ‘crawl’ along the ground and, over time, can extend several feet from the center of the plant.

Syagrus cearensis is a midsize, clumping species bearing slightly plumose leaflets unevenly distributed along the petiole. It almost always produces two stems, but occasionally sends up more. It was not described botanically until 2004. It is endemic to the northeast Brazilian states of Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Ceará, the last of which is the source of its species name. S. cearensis prefers a sunny position with good drainage.

Syagrus kellyana, endemic to Minas Gerais state in Brazil, is relatively new to Florida. It grows at a deliberate rate, reaching 6-16 ft. at maturity. S. kellyana bears a crown of dark green, gracefully-recurving leaves, and produces fairly large fruits. It appears to be rather cold-hardy. Native to granitic outcroppings or areas of thin soil, this species does not appear to mind the poor soils of southern Florida. For best results, plant S.kellyana in full sun on a site with good drainage.

Palms for Autumn Planting, Part III

The survey of palm species available at Richard Lyons’ Nursery in 3-gal. containers continues this week:

Cocos nucifera ‘Red Spicata Dwarf’ is a distinctive variety of the Coconut Palm. It bears vibrantly-colored (orange, not truly red) seednuts on spiky infructescences. The contrast between Dwarf and Tall Coconut Palms is manifested in at least two ways that are more predictive than height: Dwarf varieties have narrower trunks, and they begin to flower and fruit earlier. For best results with a ‘Red Spicata,’ fertilize generously during the growing season. Like all coconuts, this variety prefers to be grown in full sun.

Copernicia berteroana is perhaps the fastest-growing of the Copernicias, though it slows greatly in Mediterranean climates. Native to open, dry forests of Hispaniola, it reaches 20-33 ft. at maturity. It produces a dense crown of generously-segmented, bright green palmate leaves. The species is not particular about soil, so long as it is well-drained. Though its occurrence in the wild has diminished, it is reported to be widely used as an ornamental plant along streets and in parks in its native land.

Copernicia macroglossa, the Cuban Petticoat Palm, is noted for the skirt of old leaves that persists around its trunk for many years. Hidden under the ‘petticoat’ is a stem just 8 in. or so in diameter. The palm’s distinctive look is owed to its very short leafstems, which cause its large leaves to appear as if they emanate directly from the trunk. Like many species in its genus, C. macroglossa accommodates copious amounts of water very well, but also handles drought easily once established. It reaches 20-25 ft. in southern Florida.

Livistona nitida is native to central Queensland, Australia, where it is generally found near abundant sources of water, such as in the Carnarvon Gorge. Though capable of reaching over 100 ft. in its homeland, L. nitida tops out at about 40 ft. in our region. It features an open crown of numerous palmate leaves with drooping leaf segments. Its petioles are lined with curved, dark red spines. Still relatively uncommon in Florida, it can handle temperatures in the low 20s. Plant it in a sunny location.

Pseudophoenix vinifera is another palm native to dry areas of Hispaniola. Its species name is derived from its use, especially years ago, to make a wine. Its most striking feature is its swollen trunk, ringed by very pronounced leaf scars and coated with a whitish wax. P. vinifera produces abundant, showy scarlet fruit. It should be planted in sunny sites with good drainage. Once established, it is drought-tolerant. A slow grower, it may reach 65 ft. in its native region, but is more likely to mature to around 25 ft. in southern Florida.



Palms for Autumn Planting, Part II

Our survey of palms available at Richard Lyons’ Nursery continues with a look at species being grown in 3-gal. containers:

Acoelorrhaphe wrightii, commonly known as the Paurotis Palm, is one of the dozen palm species native to Florida. Its home is the Everglades, so in cultivation it likes copious amounts of water. A palmate species, it features multiple thin, graceful stems covered with black fibers. Over a long period, it can reach 30 ft. in height. Paurotis fruit ripens from white to orange to black. The palm is hardy to at least 25°.

Actinorhytis calapparia is a single-trunked, pinnate species native to rain forests from the Solomon Islands westward into Papua New Guinea. It needs shaded conditions when young, but can later tolerate stronger light. Leaves recurve like those of Carpentaria. This species produces large red fruit to about 3 in. long. It matures to 20+ ft. in southern Florida.

Bismarckia nobilis is a species endemic to Madagascar. It grows to about 40 ft. in our region. Its large gray-green palmate leaves and stout trunk provide a very striking landscape element for sunny exposures. Once acclimated in the ground, Bismarckia is perfectly attuned to our hot, rainy summers and cooler, dry winters, and it is capable of surviving temperatures in the mid-20s, particularly as it ages.

Chelyocarpus chuco, a native of Bolivia and Brazil, is still uncommon locally. It produces glossy, circular palmate leaves and grows to 30-40 ft. in southern Florida. Seedlings need light shade, but older plants handle full sun. This species thrives in moist soils and can withstand 30-32°.

Coccothrinax spissa differs from most other species in the genus: 1) Seedlings require some shade and 2) The trunk is fairly stout and often swollen in the middle. Native to Hispaniola, it reaches 15-20 ft. in our region. Provide sun and moderate watering. Once established, it tolerates drought well.

Palms for Autumn Planting

Believe it or not, southern Florida is beginning to cool down, at least statistically. Our region has endured a very warm summer; we seem to have had temperatures 3-5 degrees above historical averages for months. However, the day-night mean temperature for mid-October should be 80°, down from 85° during the July-August peak.

 While we are entering the time of year when a lot of palm species don’t take kindly to transplanting, this is an excellent season in which to plant container-grown palms. That’s because their root systems are established and won’t have to go through recovery from being cut. Container-grown palms installed during the autumn are able to expand their root systems over the winter months so that the plants can put on vigorous crown growth when hot weather returns. All that’s necessary is steady watering so that rootballs stay hydrated.

 Richard Lyons’ Nursery has a good variety of palm species available for your autumn planting projects. This week we’ll take a look at some of the species that are available in 1-gal. containers:

 Coccothrinax argentata is one of Florida’s native species. The strong silvery coloration found on the undersides of its leathery leaves gives rise to its common name, the Silver Palm. It grows best in a sunny, well-drained exposure and slowly reaches about 20 ft. Fruits mature from white to purple. It is tolerant of poor soils.

 Coccothrinax crinita, the popular Old Man Palm, is endemic to Cuba. Its trunk is covered in beardlike woolly fibers, and the undersides of its palmate leaves are silvery. In our region, this sun-loving species can reach 25-30 ft. slowly. It requires moderate water and good drainage, but is drought-tolerant once established.

 Dypsis cabadae is a water-loving species that was almost unknown here 35 years ago. Its dark green stems with white rings marking where leaves once were gives this palm a bamboo-like appearance.  It reaches 30-40 ft. at maturity and can be grown in light shade to sun. It is native to islands off the coast of Madagascar.

 Dypsis leptocheilos, commonly called the Teddy Bear Palm because of the rust-colored fuzz (tomentum) on its crownshaft, is a critically-endangered native of Madagascar. This single-stemmed species matures to about 30 ft. and bears prominent leaf scars on its whitish trunk. It prefers sunny exposures and lots of water. It bears very long pinnate leaves, but almost no petiole.

 Hyophorbe lagenicaulis is the Bottle Palm, a critically-endangered native, endemic to Round Island in the Indian Ocean, near Mauritius, where perhaps only 15 are said to remain. However, due to its popularity in tropical and subtropical climates, this palm is plentiful in cultivation worldwide and is perfectly at home in limestone soils, such as those found in South Florida.  It features a swollen gray trunk and small green crownshaft consisting of 4-8 ascending pinnate leaves. It reaches about 10-15 ft. at maturity.


Florida Citrus Takes a Licking, But Not From Greening

For a number of years now, Florida citrus has been pummeled by disease. Citrus canker appeared first, only to be supplanted by a newer scourge, citrus greening. Orange production alone cratered from a peak of 244 million 90-lb. boxes in 1997-98 to 68.36 million (or 68.75 million, depending upon the source) in 2016-17. But for the upcoming season, citrus production was predicted to be higher than at any time in the past five years.

Then Hurricane Irma scoured the state.

On October 12 the USDA issued its first citrus crop forecast for the 2017-18 season, estimating a harvest of 54 million boxes of oranges. That would make it the smallest production since the 1946-47 season. Prior to Irma, a respected citrus consultant forecast an orange crop of 75.5 million boxes. But the USDA’s number was viewed skeptically by people in the industry. Larry Black, the general manager of Peace River Packing Co., said that the forecast underestimated the rate of fruit drop caused by the hurricane.

Florida Commissioner of Agriculture Adam Putnam was in agreement. Following release of the USDA forecast, he observed that “Some estimates would say that groves that were impacted by the hurricane will continue to experience significant fruit drop for weeks to come. So it’s just important I think that we continue to recognize that the damage done to Florida agriculture is still unfolding.” Other critics of the government statistics point out that additional influential factors overlooked by the USDA include wind damage to tree branches and limbs and flood damage to the root systems.

The U.S. Congress’s most recent disaster relief package did not include funds for Florida’s farmers; that remedy is still expected. But there’s another form of relief for the citrus industry that makes an accurate crop estimate essential: The lower the projected harvest – say, in the 30-40 million box range – the higher the prices growers can negotiate with juice processors and packinghouses. With that crucial consideration in mind, Florida Citrus Mutual, the trade group for the state’s citrus growers, asked the USDA to delay its October forecast until it can conduct a comprehensive fruit survey. The request was turned down.

No matter how the question of storm-related damage is resolved, the cloud of citrus greening has not dissipated; there is still no known cure for the disease. Accordingly, as it has done for several years, Richard Lyons’ Nursery is advising homeowners against planting citrus in their yards.