Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora)

Jaboticaba is the Brazilian term for four very similar species of Myrciaria that produce one of the more interesting-looking tropical fruit trees in the southern half of Florida. The name of the best- known of those species, M. cauliflora, suggests why: It is cauliflorous, meaning that its flowers and fruits are borne directly on the woody stems and trunk of the tree. Jaboticaba is native to southeastern Brazil, as well as parts of Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. Because of that southerly origin, mature specimens can tolerate periods of brief frost into the upper 20s. The species was introduced to Florida just over 100 years ago, reportedly in Brevard County. It grows very slowly and, in the shallow soils of southern Florida, rarely exceeds 15 ft. (The slow growth rate also makes Jaboticaba popular as a bonsai subject.) While the tree prefers mildly acidic soils, it adapts fairly well to alkaline sites, especially when good nutrition is provided. For best fruiting, trees should be grown in full sun, and the soil at the planting site should be well-aerated. While ample soil moisture is a must for Jaboticaba, good drainage is also essential, so be sure to plant the tree 2-3 in. above the surrounding soil. This genus is not salt-tolerant.

Jaboticaba performs much better in cultivation than under natural conditions. Although a tree may not begin to flower for eight years, given appropriate moisture and fertilization it will eventually flower and fruit several times a year. The flowers are small and white, and the leathery skin of Jaboticaba fruit ripens in a range of color from purplish-maroon to almost black. The period from flowering to fruit harvest is encouragingly short — 20-30 days. The fruit, which ripens an inch or so in diameter, has a grapelike appearance, but contains just 1-4 large seeds. The gelatinous flesh is white to pink, and its flavor ranges from sweet to subacid. Since the fruit has a fairly short shelf life, it is usually eaten fresh, but is also used to make jams, jellies, pies, and alcoholic beverages. Fruit skins are known to have medicinal value and are said to be processed for anti-cancer compounds.  However, consuming the raw skin more than occasionally is not recommended due to its high tannin content.

This very nice fruit tree is available at Richard Lyons’ Nursery in 3- and 15-gal. containers.

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba)
trained for Bonsai

Myrciaria cauliflora trained for Bonsai

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba)
4″ Pots

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba)
3-gal. containers

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba)
in-ground 15′

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba)
flower on trunk

Myrciaria cauliflora (Jaboticaba)
ripe fruit

Bamboo Palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii)

The term ‘Bamboo Palm’ has been applied to several palm species because of their resemblance to genuine bamboo. What each of the ersatz bamboos features in common is multiple smooth stems interrupted by horizontal rings. Over time Chamaedorea seifrizii probably has been the most frequently-cited and dependable of the so-called Bamboo Palms.

Chamaedorea is a New World genus of over 100 species, and many have found significant niches in the landscape of southern Florida. More than a few have demonstrated the invaluable capacity to adapt from native rainforest habitats to successful roles as indoor ornamental plants. C. seifrizii perhaps fulfills that function better than any others.

C. seifrizii is a clustering species whose thin, cane-like stems grow to variable heights, roughly 7-12 ft. It features semi-glossy pinnate leaves which are distributed along each stem, rather than just at the top. (Leaflet shape is quite variable in this species, and over time some forms have been erroneously marketed under different names. For example, the wider-leaflet form is often sold as C. erumpens.)  Once a specimen matures, it produces orange infructescences that bear pea-sized fruit which ripens black. The combination of colors is very striking and attractive.

The species is native from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico into Belize, Guatemala and Honduras.  In part of its range, it thrives in swampy settings, but elsewhere it occurs under seasonally arid conditions. That versatility likely explains why this palm is among the most drought-tolerant of Chamaedoreas. Cold tolerance in southern Florida is generally not a worry in the populated regions; C. seifrizii withstands temperatures down to 28° and can usually overcome the damage that occurs at 26°.

C. seifrizii’s versatility extends to light demands as well. It is tolerant of both very bright outdoor positions and low indoor lighting. However, like Rhapis excelsa, its color bleaches out in full sun, particularly in a climate — such as that of southern Florida — where summer temperatures commonly exceed 90°.

The adaptability of this species to indoor lighting conditions has made it very popular for interior landscaping, although for best results it should not be placed unrealistically distant from a window or a source of good artificial lighting. If a regular watering schedule is observed, maintenance of this Bamboo Palm is rather undemanding. About the only problem to watch for when growing C. seifrizii indoors is, as with many other plants, occasional infestations of red spider mite.

C. seifrizii is available at the nursery in 7- and 15-gal. containers.

Chamaedorea seifrizii (Bamboo Palm)

Chamaedorea seifrizii (Bamboo Palm Fruit)

Chamaedorea seifrizii (Bamboo Palm)

Allspice (Pimenta dioica) and Bay Rum (Pimenta racemosa)

The genus Pimenta comprises 14 flowering species, among which are some of the most interesting and desirable aromatic trees in the world. But it’s all a mistake . . . a big mistake. Spanish explorers poking around Mexico in the 16th century found an attractive medium-sized tree whose berry-like fruits resembled black pepper, so they called it pimienta, the Spanish word for pepper. That error has become preserved in the genus name. We concentrate below on two of the most significant representatives of Pimenta.

Pimenta dioica, the specific plant mistaken for a new source of black pepper, is better-known to most people as the allspice tree or, in another long-perpetuated error, the Jamaican pepper. The name allspice was bestowed on it by the English around 1621 because they considered its complex taste a combination of clove, cinnamon and nutmeg. The first recorded instance of the importation of the spice into Europe came in 1601.

This beautiful tree reaches 30-40 ft. high and features aromatic, leathery, glossy, oblong 4-8 in. leaves. The bark, whitish-gray in color, peels away in thin sheets. The tree produces clusters of white flowers which are followed by berry-shaped fruits that mature purple-black. However, in the commercial production of allspice, the fruit is picked green and dried in the sun. The major volatile oil responsible for this species’ fame is eugenol.

The allspice tree is native to the Greater Antilles (Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Cuba), southern Mexico and Central America. While the tree is now cultivated in many tropical areas of the world, it is apparently the only spice processed commercially solely in the New World, particularly Mexico, Honduras, Jamaica, Trinidad and Cuba. Jamaica was the leading exporter of allspice, at least until the 1990s, but there is now some indication that Mexico has superseded it, and Honduras and Guatemala are becoming major exporters.

Once P. dioica is established, it withstands drought and even has some cold tolerance — 26-28°.  It can be grown nicely as a container specimen, as well as in the ground, and performs best in full sun.  While the allspice tree may not flower and fruit dependably outside native areas, it is still quite desirable; even the bark is aromatic!

Most folks know that the spice is used in a variety of condiments, and also in pies, cakes and candies. But eugenol is also an important constituent of cosmetics and perfumes. And it may surprise some to learn that allspice is even found in the liqueurs Benedictine and Chartreuse, as well as in Northern European food staples such as pickled fish and sausages. Eugenol also has medicinal applications as an aid to digestion and an anesthetic for toothaches. This would appear to suggest that the pies, cakes and candies which contain allspice must also cure toothaches. Could there be a more perfect food?

The second tree, Pimenta racemosa, better-known as Bay Rum or West Indian Bay Tree, is variable in height, maturing in the 12-40 ft. range, but generally shorter than P. dioica. It is native to the West Indies and possibly northern South America. The tree bears attractive, small white flowers which give way to black ovoid fruits. This species has about the same cultural requirements as the allspice tree, but is several degrees less cold-hardy.

Bay rum is distilled from the berry-like fruits of P. racemosa, but this essential oil is not used in beverages because in that concentration ingestion is toxic. Instead, it is used as a constituent of colognes, perfumes and soaps. On the other hand, the leaves of this species are fine for consumption as a syrup or herbal tea, or in cooking. Leaves are sold fresh or dried. Medicinally, bay rum has long been employed to treat sore muscles and various strains and sprains. Scientists later discovered that the essential bay oil contains a constituent possessing anti-bacterial properties. And even more recently, at least one study has characterized bay oil as a potent antioxidant.

Richard Lyons’ Nursery sells both species of these desirable Pimentas in 3-gal. and 15-gal. containers.

Pimenta dioica (Allspice Fruit)

Pimenta dioica (Allspice Tree with fruit forming)

Pimenta dioica (Mature Allspice Tree)

Pimenta dioica (Allspice Tree beginning to flower)

Pimenta racemosa (Bay Rum Tree)

Pimenta racemosa (Young Bay Rum Tree)

Blue Porterweed (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)

Names are so confusing sometimes. I mean, we seem to have trouble with directions. How did Cleveland, Ohio end up in the midwest? Probably not from continental drift. And we certainly can’t tell verbs from adjectives from nouns, so in football we play contain defense instead of containment defense, and in Congress we lock in the sequester instead of sequestration. Perhaps the explanation is simple: Our political leaders probably played football without helmets a few too many times.

Alas, even plant names have been afflicted with the language malaise. Take the blue porterweed, a beautiful small shrub native to Florida. Naturally, it is known as . . . Jamaican Porterweed, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. And to make matters worse, over the years several exotic species have mistakenly been identified, photographed and sold as Blue Porterweed. True S. jamaicensis has a decumbent, i.e., sprawling, growth habit, and reaches a height of just a foot or so. The lowermost parts of the plant are lignified, or woody, and only the newer growth is flexible. There may be some mounding in Blue Porterweed, particularly in cultivated specimens.

The horizontally-spreading branches of this species bear dull leaves that are generally gray-green or light green in color, although a purple blush appears on some plants. The upper surface of the leaves is usually smooth, and the leaf margin is strongly serrated. Green flower spikes up to a foot long produce small blue flowers, starting at the bottom and working their way to the top each day. Each flower stays open for just a day, and there are usually 3-4 flowers open at the same time on each spike.

Among the other species of Stachytarpheta that have made their way into Florida are an upright, trunking representative from Asia and a large, pink-flowering shrub from South America. Neither is remotely like S. jamaicensis, but that hasn’t stopped confusion from reigning. Moreover, some hybrids have developed, and that has only deepened the morass. We’re afraid that misapplication of the name may persist long after the sequester stumbles over the fiscal cliff. However, we know for certain that Richard Lyons’ Nursery carries the true Blue Porterweed in 1-gal. containers.

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Native Blue Porterweed)

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Native Blue Porterweed)

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Native Blue Porterweed)

Lady Palm (Rhapis excelsa)

Almost everyone, whether a plant lover or not, knows the Lady Palm — if not by name, at least by sight — for it is one of the most successful indoor palms in use. Because of its easy adaptability to low light and dry air, it graces interior landscapes in containers of all sizes at malls, offices, hotels and airports. And yet, as recently as the 1960s it was hardly seen in the U.S.A.

This palm, botanically known as Rhapis excelsa, is no longer found in the wild, but is considered to have been native to southern China, Taiwan and perhaps northern Vietnam. The genus name is the Greek word for needle, and a form of it is repeated in the name of the Needle Palm, Rhapidophyllum hystrix. In the 17th century, Rhapis was taken to Japan for use in the palaces of the Tokugawa shogunate, a feudal military government. Later it was introduced to Europe, and by the end of the 18th century, the Lady Palm was a prized possession of conservatories in northern Europe. The U.S. was thus a Johnny-come-lately to the appreciation of this species.

R. excelsa is a palmate species belonging to the wide-ranging subfamily Coryphoideae, which includes in its membership Corypha, Licuala, Coccothrinax and Washingtonia, as well as pinnate genera Phoenix and Caryota! Its glossy blade, or leaf, about 8-12 in. wide, is deeply cut into segments. It grows 12-13 ft. high and produces multiple thin stems. Each stem is wrapped in dark fibers which may fall off as they age, revealing a smooth, ringed, bamboo-like cane. No part of the species bears spines.

As an outdoor plant, The Lady Palm is very undemanding and grows well in a variety of soils, so long as poor drainage and salt are avoided. Cold is never a problem for it in southern Florida, since it seems to be hardy down to 22°. For best appearance, it should be grown in filtered light. Exposure to full sun will turn leaves yellow-green, especially if good soil moisture is not maintained, and the tips of leaf segments will turn brown in the hottest months.

R. excelsa spreads via underground rhizomes which produce new shoots. The shoots sometimes emerge from the drainage holes of containerized plants and can simply be clipped off and discarded.  However, if the owner wants to propagate the new plant instead and the container is not valuable, the pot can be sacrificed so that a longer piece of the runner can be obtained to preserve some roots. New plants on the rhizomes of in-ground specimens can be similarly removed. (A fungicide application to the cut end is also recommended.) The important thing to remember is to pot up the offset immediately. If potting is delayed and the rhizome cutting dries out, it will be virtually impossible to save. The Lady Palm can, of course, also be propagated from seed, but until recent years the species seldom produced fruit in southern Florida. But it now seems that a pollinator has come on the scene in our region, for mature white fruit has been appearing more and more frequently.

R. excelsa can be grown in containers for a long time, although occasional repotting is necessary once stems fill the capacity of the pot. However, one of the most valued traits of the species as an indoor plant is its slow growth rate, and a specimen may well be kept in the same container for a number of years. Outdoors as a specimen plant, the Lady Palm is not only striking by day, in or out of the ground, but it can also be shown off well at night with underlighting. In addition, it can serve as a very attractive, dense screening element in the landscape. R. excelsa has a history of being fairly free of pests and diseases, although indoor specimens should be inspected for red spider mites and mealy bugs from time to time.

This popular, dependable palm is available at Richard Lyons’ Nursery in 7-gal. and 15-gal. containers.

Rhapis excelsa (Lady Palm)

Rhapis excelsa (Lady Palm)

Rhapis excelsa (Lady Palm)